Concrete Septic Tank Risers - Septic Tank Sewage Treatment Systems - These manage to pay for a very crude method of treating sewage for properties which are not joined to mains drainage. Many septic tank systems throughout the world are never maintained and therefore pull off not function properly and pollution direct laws exist to try to limit the amount of environmental and health risks they cause. These laws are getting tighter, and minimum standards have been put in place for additional or replacement septic systems. In many cases you will infatuation to install a sewage treatment reforest system instead. Always acquire the sewage system checked by a waste water system skillful prior to purchasing a property in order to prevent a pollution problem.
Types of Septic Tank Systems Available
There are various types of septic tank systems. They consist of an underground septic tank in differing shapes and sizes, which then connects to a subsidiary soil treatment system, usually a land drainage system in the form of a soakaway or drainfield, or a mound soakaway.
How a Septic Tank works
Raw sewage and waste water from baths, kitchens, etc. discharges into the tank, where the solids are at odds from the liquid waste. Fats and oils float to the summit of the tank and form a crust layer. Faeces and food scraps sink to the bottom of the tank and form a sludge layer. Anerobic bacteria which are natural colonisers in the tank "digest" this sludge by in the works to 70%.
The filthy septic water flows out of the tank to a soakaway or drainfield. Baffles or 'T' pipes in the tank hold put up to the drifting crust and prevent it from entering the outlet of the tank. In order that the sludge and crust layers pull off not become too deep, septic tanks should be emptied annually. This then prevents a innovative and innovative inclusion of suspended solids washing out into the soakaway. Solids can block the expose spaces in the soil drainage system, creating a drainage misfortune and the septic tank effluent will not be practiced to soak away or be treated by the natural soil bacteria.
Variations in Septic Tank systems
Traditional septic tanks comprise of two rectangular chambers: the first one inborn 2/3 of the sum up and the second 1/3, usually built in brick or concrete. Strict design rules are in place and septic tanks must be designed in accordance with BS 6297 1983. The inlet pipe into the first chamber ends in a 'T' pipe which travels alongside the at least 450mm (18") below summit water level (TWL), and the chamber must be a minimum of 1500mm (5'-0") deep from TWL. This first stage chamber is usually twice as long as it is wide. The pipe from the first chamber into the second chamber consists of an 'H' pipe and the bottom of the pipe is a min. of 300mm (12") below TWL in the first chamber and 450mm (18") below summit water level (TWL) with it enters the second chamber.This second stage chamber is usually square. The outlet pipe from the second chamber of the tank then consists of a 'T' pipe with the bottom of the pipe 300mm (12") below TWL.
Vent pipes should be installed from the first and second chambers for venting the gases, mainly methane and hydrogen sulphide, that are produced by the sludge. strong covers should always be placed very greater than a septic tank to avoid children / animals falling into the tank. There are many cases of thcovers collapsing and many people have been killed as a result.
Nowadays, septic tanks are made in GRP and polyethylene which commonly are spherical in touch with a narrow shaft at the summit to a manhole ground level. These pull off not build the similar atmosphere of effluent as two chamber tanks and cannot be placed in belly of many conversion units.
Care should be taken to ensure that problems will not occur due to the tank rising out of the ground, with it is emptied in high water table sites. It is always advisable to install the tank with a real surround.
Septic tank effluent yet contains practically 70% of the pollutants in the native sewage and needs additional treatment in the soakaway to prevent a pollution problem.
Soakaways and Septic Drainfields
The Septic Tank unaided provides the first allocation of the sewage treatment process. The soakaway is the underground soil treatment system which uses aerobic bacteria found naturally in the ground to additional treat the effluent. The soil type must be suitable for a soakaway to function properly. Percolation tests are required to determine whether a septic tank soakaway is suitable. If the soil is clay, it is not suitable for a soakaway and a drainage misfortune is inevitable. If you have this misfortune then a sewage treatment reforest is the reply as they pull off not infatuation a soakaway.
The soakaway consists of either a series of trenches containing perforated pipe laid on and surrounded by stone, or an absorption bed, or a soakaway mound, all of which are joined to the septic tank outlet by a pipe. In all cases the soakaway must be a minimum of 1.2 metres above the water table or bedrock at all times. They must then be a minimum of 200 mm. below ground level to avoid septic effluent breaking to the surface. The pipes should be laid at a gradient of no more than 1:200 in a drainfield in order that the wastewater does not direct to the stop of the pipe, but is dispersed evenly. The perforations should be larger than 6mm (0.25") to avoid the biomatt, which forms in the trench, blocking the holes. The pipe cannot be the corrugated tubing type as used in land drains as this is not allowed, but must be the true unquestionable soakaway drainage pipe
The contaminants, pathogens, nutrients, and organic event in the effluent are dispersed into the gravel where they are digested by aerobic bacteria.
On a sideways site, the effluent may flow into a series of drop boxes or manholes with other outlet to the next-door pipeline set at a subjugate level. Absorption beds are useful where spread is limited, but they should unaided be used as a second choice.
Sewage Drainage Mounds
A treatment mound is a raised soakaway system. Aggregates are used to raise the soakaway therefore that it is at least 1200mm (4'-0") above the seasonal high water table or bedrock. The mound system must be designed carefully, taking into account the topography of the site, the volume of septic tank effluent to be treated and the porosity of the topsoil to avoid failure of the system and boggy areas in the region of the base of the mound. The design cannot be guessed and must be finished by a trained professional, using exam results and calculations.
I have seen awfully designed mounds blast a hole through the side as they have been too small for the job.
Effluent is piped to a pumping station tank, where it is pumped in batches into the mound pipe-work. Septic mounds can see very handsome and can form allocation of the landscaping of a garden. You are not allowed to reforest shrubs on summit of them, but they can be planted in the region of their base.
Septic Tank Soakaway Pits
In the past, many septic tank systems used soakaway pits, although these pits are no longer satisfactory below radical building regulations. They consisted of a large hole in the ground, get into at the bottom, either blocked round with gaps amongst the blocks to permit seepage of the effluent into the soil, or conveniently holes filled with stones. Some soakaway pits were made of large real rings with gaps amongst the rings and the septic tank effluent was piped into them. They were always covered, usually with a large real slab, but they were often a failure, as no calculations were undertaken to determine the porosity of the surrounding soil and they soon were filled with septic effluent. The drains then occupy amongst the pit and the tank, which backs-up the entire septic system.
Site Conditions and Installation
Most sites in the UK are not suitable for septic tank systems. Either the soil contains too much clay or is too porous, or the winter water table or bedrock is too close the surface. If the soil is clay, then it will not soak the septic effluent away and if it is too indecent it will not hold the effluent long satisfactory for treatment. You could consider a non-electric sewage treatment reforest instead. Sometimes, it is doable to become accustomed a septic system to exploit a basically improper site, but this requires careful planning and design by an expert. As a general rule, if the site has either insufficient soil depth, or the wrong type of soil, it is not suitable for a septic system. Always get into your Building Inspector back deciding on a septic system.
The size of a septic system, both the tank and the soakaway area, is definite by the number of bedrooms in the house and porosity of the soakaway soil. A septic system cannot function if it is overloaded, therefore always bear in mind any plans you may have for extending the property back you consider on the size of the septic system. Increasing the size innovative results in a ruined garden.
Finally, always check with the atmosphere Agency and you local Building direct back deciding on a septic system. They will have a very fine idea as to whether it is likely to function in your place and could keep you thousands of pounds in replacing an improper septic installation.